Archive for April, 2008

CNS Meeting 2008: Development of Cognitive Control

Saturday, April 19th, 2008

I just got back from CNS a few days ago. I thought I’d write a quick summary of one of the more interesting symposia at the conference.

Taking place Monday (4/14) afternoon, The rise and fall of cognitive control: Lifespan development covered how executive brain functions develop and peak in the 20s and 30s, falling again toward the end of life.

The first talk, by Cindy Lustig, reported on a functional MRI study of 239 individuals ranging from 9 to 97 years of age. She found that the “default-network” brain activity (likely related to mind wandering) was better suppressed during difficult tasks early in life and decreased later in life. This suggests that difficulties older people have with hard tasks may originate in their poor ability to reduce background thoughts.

Adele Diamond gave the next talk, which focused on an impressive preschool program that improves cognitive control in children to help them with future school success. The program, called Tools of the Mind, is based on research showing that self-regulation (i.e., cognitive control) is very predictive of future academic success. The program successfully integrates with the children’s play, and Dr. Diamond’s research shows convincingly that it is able to improve cognitive control and subsequent school success. The above photo is of two children “playing” the program’s ‘Buddy Reading’ task, which promotes inhibition of inappropriate impulses using a reminder icon held by the child in the role of listener (on the right in the above photo).

The final talk, by Bradley Schlaggar of Washington University at St. Louis, described tracking changes in resting state connectivity with development. As presented by Steven Petersen at HBM 2007, Dr. Schlaggar showed how dorsal anterior cingulate changes its membership in networks over time. The idea of showing how regional membership in global networks can change with development is very exciting and will certainly lead to future insights into human developmental processes.

-MWCole

Joaquin Fuster on Cortical Dynamics

Saturday, April 5th, 2008

I recently watched this talk (below) by Joaquin Fuster. His theories provide a good integration of cortical functions and distributed processing in working and long-term memory. He also has some cool videos of likely network interactions across cortex (in real time) in his talk.

Here is a diagram of Dr. Fuster’s view of cortical hierarchies:

Joaquin Fuster’s talk:

Link to Joaquin Fuster’s talk [Google Video]

Here is an excerpt from Dr. Fuster’s amazing biography:
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Combining Simple Recurrent Networks and Eye-Movements to study Language Processing

Saturday, April 5th, 2008

BBS image of GLENMORE model

Modern technologies allow eye movements to be used as a tool for studying language processing during tasks such as natural reading. Saccadic eye movements during reading turn out to be highly sensitive to a number of linguistic variables. A number of computational models of eye movement control have been developed to explain how these variables affect eye movements. Although these models have focused on relatively low-level cognitive, perceptual and motor variables, there has been a concerted effort in the past few years (spurred by psycholinguists) to extend these computational models to syntactic processing.

During a modeling symposium at ECEM2007 (the 14th European Conference on Eye Movements), Dr. Ronan Reilly presented a first attempt to take syntax into account in his eye-movement control model (GLENMORE; Reilly & Radach, Cognitive Systems Research, 2006). (more…)